Timeline Stories

All timeline stories.

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All States “allow” Native Americans to Vote

Basic Timeline: 1787 – Article 1, S2, P3 of the Constitution states, “Representatives and direct Taxes shall be … determined by adding to the whole Number of free Persons…excluding Indians not taxed, three fifths of all other Persons.” 1868 – 14th Amendment passed, it declared all persons “born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof” were citizens. However, the “jurisdiction” requirement was interpreted to exclude most Native Americans. 1870 – 15th Amendment passed, “The right of citizens…to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of..Read More/Comment

LUCA – Last Universal Common Ancestor

LUCA, the last universal common ancestor, is the most recent population of organisms from which all current life on Earth descended from. Although no LUCA fossil has yet been found, geneticists can study LUCA by studying it’s descendants, that is, all life on Earth.  

Animals, Plants, and Fungi Split

Eukaryote cells evolve into three separate lineages, the ancestors of modern plants, fungi and animals. Later animals evolve into the animal kingdom which includes mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, insects, crustaceans, arachnids, echiniderms, worms, mollusks, and sponges.

Mitochondrion

Internal Organelles Evolve

Eukaryotic cells are cells with internal organs, organelles and the DNA is in the nucleus. The predecessor prokaryote cells do not have a nucleus, but do have DNA. All cells in all animals, plants, and insects are eukaryotic, but all animals, plants, and insects host millions of critters based on both eukaryotic and prokaryote cells.

First Vertebrates

The earliest known vertebrates originated about 525 million BCE during the Cambrian explosion. 

yellow and red flowers on gray rock

First Land Plants

The first land plants appeared during the Ordovician period. Life was diversifying rapidly during the Ordovician period.

Jellyfish moving through water

First True Animals – Comb Jellyfish

Through genetic analyses, scientists now believe the Comb Jellyfish is the earliest known true animal to evolve on Earth. Prior to this genetic analyses, simple sponges were thought to have evolved first.

green and black abstract painting

First Multicellular Animals

Organisms that consist of more than one cell took several billion years to evolve from unicellular organisms. All species of animals, land plants and most fungi are multicellular, as well as many algae. A few organisms are partially both such as slime molds and social amoebae.

micro organisms cells background

Oldest Known Fossil-Microorganisms

The earliest known life on Earth are fossilized microorganisms found in hydrothermal vent precipitates. Currently dated to about 3.42 billion BCE.

blue green and red heart shaped stone

Man Made Glass

The earliest known man made glass dates back to circa 3500 BCE and to Egypt and Eastern Mesopotamia. Discovery of glassblowing around 1st century BC was a major breakthrough in glass making.

pathogen virus background

Electron Microscope = Nanoworld Discovered!

Starting in 1931 with the invention of the electron microscope, the nanoworld became visible to us. The nanoworld contains items as small in diameter as 1 micrometer (1 micron) to a diameter 1,000 times smaller, a diameter of 1 nanometer. The nanoworld includes the smallest single celled organisms, the smallest bacteria as well as viruses, proteins, and molecules. Note: The virus was discovered in 1892 through scientific experiments and first seen in the 1930s.

Various bacteria cells in microscope. Streptococcus pneumonia, p

Microscope Invented = Microworld Discovered!

With the invention of the microscope, humanity became aware of the microworld which is defined as 1 to 1000 microns. A micron is equal to one thousands of a millimeter. A cell is about 10 microns wide. Paper is about 100 microns thick. The unaided human eye can see items as small as 50 microns, or about half the width of a piece of paper. Scientists use three scales when talking about the biological world: the milliworld, microworld, and the nanoworld. The milliworld contains all visible items down to 1 millimeter and includes very small things such as ants, fleas,..Read More/Comment

crystal lens ball in a woman’s hand, with a refracted view of a misty country lane

Earliest Known Magnification

The earliest known magnification dates back to the first century. These simple early magnification devices consisted of using natural crystals or a glass globe filled with water. It is reasonable to assume the use of natural crystals for magnification was around for many thousands of years. One possible specimen is the Nimrud lens dating back to 750 BCE. Although man-made glass was in common use about 3500 BCE, eye glasses would have to wait about 4,500 years later. Eye glasses were invented in the 13th century. A few centuries earlier, a reading glass was in common use. A piece of..Read More/Comment

Plastic Yellow Whistle

Trump Breaking or Bending the Whistle Blower Law

Another 4 Trump crimes uncovered in last 24 hours:  Trump Crime 1: Cory Lewandowsky testified under oath that Trump directed him to refuse to answer questions from Congress preventing Congress from performing their constitutional oversight duty written into the constitution by our Founding Fathers.  Trump Crime 2: A whistleblower submitted a complaint to the IG that said Trump went way beyond his Article II powers and promised something to a foreign leader that broke the law. CNN reported that Trump asked Ukraine to interfere in our 2020 election in exchange for the $250 million in support. Reporting says that Trump..Read More/Comment

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